The following is a step-by-step guide to getting started with Windows Sockets programming. It is designed to provide an understanding of basic Winsock functions and data structures, and how they work together.

The client and server application that is used for illustration is a very basic client and server. On earlier versions of the Windows SDK, the version number in the above path would change. The more advanced samples listed below in order from higher to lower performance are found in the following directories:.

The programs include a Winsock server iocpserver that uses the WSAAccept function, a Winsock server iocpserverex that uses the AcceptEx function, and a simple multithreaded Winsock client iocpclient used to test either of these servers.

For convenience, a simple client program, iocpclient, was developed to connect and continually send data to the server to stress it using multiple threads.

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The server uses the AcceptEx function to multiplex different client connections in a single-threaded Win32 application.

This directory contains a basic sample program that demonstrates the use of the WSAPoll function. The combined client and server program are non-blocking and use the WSAPoll function to determine when it is possible to send or receive without blocking.

This sample is more for illustration and is not a high-performance server. This directory contains three basic sample programs that demonstrate the use of multiple threads by a server. The servers demonstrates the use of multiple threads to handle multiple client requests. This method has scalability issues since a separate thread is created for each client request. This directory contains a basic sample server and client program.

The server demonstrates the use of either non-blocking accept using the select function or asynchronous accept using the WSAAsyncSelect function.

Skip to main content. Exit focus mode. The first few steps are the same for both client and server applications. Related Articles Is this page helpful?Programming can be very challenging. The most important thing to remember is not to get discouraged.

I wrote this instructable because I know how difficult and frustrating getting started can be. So I decided to focus on what the bare minimum required to get up and running so that you can have a working program of your own to tinker around with.

What exactly is programming? Programming at it's most basic is the process of creating and implementing a set of instructions for the computer. Originally programming computers was very difficult, as what we would consider a programming language didn't exist, and instead programmers would have to give the instructions to the computer the only way it could process them, which was as a string of 1s and 0s which the computer could then interpret.

Over time, programmers built up the set of tools they could utilize so that programs would be much more easy on people to write. The compiler then makes the code into an executable, or something that you can run and perform some kind of action. The very first real step will be installing your very own C compiler.

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Let's get started! Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. Gather yourself, a working computer presumably the one that you're on and for the next step we'll install the software you need to interpret your code.

Decompress the file with something like winzip or 7zip and follow the installation instructions at the gcc website.

Socket Programming in C#

Once the compiler is installed and you've verified it with step 3if you'd like to see a quick video run down of all the steps involved simply skip ahead to step Otherwise follow along! Where you see the search bar type "cmd" with no quotes and press enter. An all black window should appear with white text that looks very dated and ominous.

A picture of what it should look like is included with this step see first picture. If your start menu doesn't look like the one in the second picture then there's a second method included below. Look at the top of the window that appeared and look for "Run" and press it. A new, smaller window should appear with just a text field. Type in "cmd" with no quotes. Once the command prompt is open move onto the next step!

Switch to the command prompt window. If the message: 'gcc' is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file appears, that means that the GNU C Compiler didn't install properly and step 3 will have to be repeated or troubleshooted. If the following message as pictured : gcc: fatal error: no input files compilation terminated. It means that all the extra software needed was installed.There really is not a lot of material on this subject I believe that explains the use of Windows sockets sufficiently enough for a beginner to understand and begin to program them.

I still remember the hassle that I went through trying to find a proper tutorial that didn't leave me hanging with many questions after I started programming with them myself. That was a long time ago now, and it was quite a challenge for me to program my first application that could communicate with other computers over the Internet — even though my first introduction to sockets was through Visual Basic; a high-level and very user-friendly programming language.

My goal is to collect all the necessary data in one place; right here, so the reader doesn't have to recollect all the data over the Internet. Thus, I present this tutorial in the hopes that it alone will be sufficient information to begin programming. Before we begin, you will need to include winsock. Actually, we can use the word-picture presented to us by the name "socket" in a similar fashion to illustrate what they are and how they work.

In an actual mechanical socket, you may recall that it is the female, or "receiving" end of a connection. A "thread" is a symbolic name for a connection between your computer and a remote computer, and a thread is connected to a socket. In case I've lost you with all that proper terminology, you might think of a thread as an actual, physical, sewing-type thread stretched from one computer to the other, as the common analogy goes.

In order for the threads to be attached to each computer, however, there must be a receiving object that attaches to the threads, and these are called sockets. A socket can be opened on any "port"; which is simply a unique number to distinguish it from other threads, because more than just one connection can be made on the same computer. A few of these ports have been set aside to serve a specific purpose. Beyond these ports, there are quite a large number of other ports that can be used for anything and everything: over 6, actually.

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A few commonly used ports are listed below with their corresponding services:. There are many more ports used for specific purposes that are not shown here.

Typically though, if you wish to use a port that has no specific assigned service, any port from 1, to 6, should be just fine. Of course, if instead you want to listen in on messages sent to and from service ports, you can do that too.

Are you connected to the Internet now? Let's say you are, and you have Internet Explorer or some other web page service running, as well as AOL or some other chat program. On top of that as if the connection wasn't slow enough alreadyyou're trying to send and receive email.


What ports do you think are opened, sending and receiving data? Just like we find out the home address of the people we visit before we get in the car, we have to know the "IP address" of the host we are connecting to, if we are connecting and not just listening a chat program needs to be able to do both. An IP address is an identification number that is assigned to each computer on the network, and consists of four sets of digits separated by periods.

You can view your IP address by running ipconfig. For the examples shown throughout this tutorial, we will be using what is called the "loop-back address" to test our chat program without being connected to the Internet. This address is Whenever you try to make a connection to this IP, the computer loops the request back to your computer and attempts to locate a server on the specified port. That way, you can have the server and client running on the same computer.

Once you decide to connect to other remote computers, and you've worked the bugs out of your chat program, you will need to get the unique IP address of each to communicate with them over the Internet.

Because we as humans are very capable of forgetting things, and because we couldn't possibly hope to remember a bunch of numbers for every web site we visit, some smart individuals came up the wonderful idea of "domain names". Now, we have neat little names like www. When you type one of these names in your browser window, the IP address for that domain name is looked up via a "router", and once it is obtained or the host is "resolved"the browser can contact the server residing at that address.

Programming Windows TCP Sockets in C++ for the Beginner

For example, let's say I call an operator because I can't remember my girlfriend's phone number fat chance. So, I just tell the operator what her name is and a few other details, but that's not important and she happily gives me the digits.Socket programming is a way of connecting two nodes on a network to communicate with each other. Basically, it is a one-way Client and Server setup where a Client connects, sends messages to the server and the server shows them using socket connection.

One socket node listens on a particular port at an IP, while other socket reaches out to the other to form a connection. Server forms the listener socket while the client reaches out to the server. Before sending any message, it must be converted into a byte array. After that on another cmd execute the client code and see the following output on the server side cmd. Now you can see the changes on the server as soon as the client program executes. What is. NET 3-Tier Architecture? If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.

See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.

Writing code in comment? Please use ide. How to Execute C Program on cmd command-line? Client Side Programming. ExecuteClient.

Socket programming in c using TCP/IP

This example. GetHostEntry Dns. GetHostName. Stream, ProtocolType. Tcp. Connect localEndPoint. ToString. Send messageSent. Receive messageReceived. GetString messageReceived. Shutdown SocketShutdown. Both.

Close. WriteLine e. ExecuteServer. Bind localEndPoint. Listen 10. WriteLine "Waiting connection Accept. Receive bytes .By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

windows socket programming in c pdf

I will do a few small projects over the next few months and need some books preferably or URLs to learn some basic concepts. In general one PC or embedded device which varies by project collects some user input or data from an external hardware device and transmits it to a remote PC which will enter it into a database. The back-end will be coded in Delphi using Indy socket components. Any recommendations to get me up to speed, at least enough for a small project which would allow me to learn on the job.

Out of online resources, Beej's Guide to Network Programming tops the list. Learn more. Which book s to learn sockets programming and TCP network communication?

windows socket programming in c pdf

Asked 8 years, 5 months ago. Active 8 years, 5 months ago. Viewed 30k times. Thanks in advance. Mawg says reinstate Monica Mawg says reinstate Monica 32k 82 82 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Nikolai Fetissov Nikolai Fetissov Yes, I missed the C part of the question, will update.

I have ordered it and am waiting eagerly. Beej's quide seems like a winner. Compiled all on Linux updated very recently. Dan Kruchinin Dan Kruchinin 2, 1 1 gold badge 14 14 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges. The Overflow Blog. Socializing with co-workers while social distancing. Podcast Programming tutorials can be a real drag. Featured on Meta. Community and Moderator guidelines for escalating issues via new response…. Feedback on Q2 Community Roadmap.

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Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled.The windows api to socket programming is called winsock. Sockets are the fundamental "things" behind any kind of network communications done by your computer.

For example when you type www. Same with any chat client like gtalk or skype. Any network communication goes through a socket. This tutorial assumes that you have basic knowledge of C and pointers. The WSAStartup function is used to start or initialise winsock library. It takes 2 parameters ; the first one is the version we want to load and second one is a WSADATA structure which will hold additional information after winsock has been loaded.

Function socket creates a socket and returns a socket descriptor which can be used in other network commands. The above code will create a socket of :. It would be a good idea to read some documentation here.

windows socket programming in c pdf

Okso you have created a socket successfully. But what next? Next we shall try to connect to some server using this socket. We can connect to www. This type of socket is non-connection socket. We connect to a remote server on a certain port number. So we need 2 thingsIP address and port number to connect to.

To connect to a remote server we need to do a couple of things. Lets create one for ourselves :. It contains the IP address in long format. This is how you do it :.

So you need to know the IP address of the remote server you are connecting to. Here we used the ip address of google. A little later on we shall see how to find out the ip address of a given domain name. The last thing needed is the connect function. It needs a socket and a sockaddr structure to connect to.

Here is a code sample.

windows socket programming in c pdf

It cannot be any simpler. It creates a socket and then connects. If you run the program it should show Connected. Try connecting to a port different from port 80 and you should not be able to connect which indicates that the port is not open for connection.

Connection means a reliable "stream" of data such that there can be multiple such streams each having communication of its own. Think of this as a pipe which is not interfered by other data.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I am taking a networking class where the Professor is literally reading the book to the class. Needless to say I have no Idea what I am doing. Our semester project is to copy code from our text book and make a client-server network.

Literally copying the code from teh book with no modifications. The book had mistakes in the code missing semicolons, extra paranthesis but I managed to at least compile the code. However, I run into a bunch of link errors. I have a tough time fixing LNK errors vs Syntax errors. But like I said I have no idea how to go about fixing this. I am sending the code for the server side, I ran into the same errors on the client side. Any tips, links to useful info, or advice would be appreciated.

I tried reading the text book but I am completely lost. Also, this is the only code related assignment we have done all semester. Everything else has been collecting packets using a packet sniffer. Literally came into class and said copy and run code on page X. You also must call WSAStartup before using any other winsock functions this isn't causing your current error, but will cause you problems once you fix the missing library issue.

At first I will try to help using your last comment: Let us assume you are using Visual Studio I think it is best option to start winsock for windows programming as Microsoft cares about Windows basic libraries being up to date and they are compatible with helpful msdn support.

This library is part of windows SDK I guess it is installed together with most versions of Visual Studioso make sure the file exists on your computer. The library you need to add is Winsock2. The basic piece of code looks like this:. For more help you can visit here. A note: since question is old and I am not sure its author will ever find my answer helpful I want to help another users looking at this question.

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